Wind Power Physics

This presentation is gonna be on the physics of wind power we are going to duvet quite a lot of the fundamentals and you’re have a so much clearer working out of what makes a just right turbine and a not so just right turbine probably there is three varieties turbines savonius, darrieus, and horizontal axis the savonious design on the highest looks clearly like a barrel that’s reduce in half of and there is all types of one of a kind models at this design but they of perform about the equal it’s not relevant if it looks like a shell or looks like anything else it is a savonious design and it suits inside that class as far as the way in which it really works Darrieus is a also vertical axis design but has airfoil blades the Darrieus mills appear all kinds of special methods as good but again have all of them operate concerning the identical in that sense this is a small one and a gigantic one once more we’re going to set the axis horizontal and the generator in a horizontal trend and now have airfoil blades if we are going to seem on the physics of wind we think about physics kinetic energy considering the fact that all wind is is small particles every having kinetic energy if we’re eager about kinetic vigor of an object its to half instances the mass times speed squared the mass of a ball is lovely handy to calculate we are able to calculate that if we threw a ball its mass its velocity we have now got its kinetic power wind is little distinctive tons and plenty of small particles of nitrogen oxygen carbon dioxide and different things all relocating so we can not quite calculate each person molecule so we will be able to use a mass flow of particles that mass go with the flow is going to be equal to the density of the air occasions the swept subject of the area had been calculating in this case the swept field of what ever turbine we are going to use and the speed of that air substitute that mass flow in and come up with our equation of energy is equal to half of occasions a density occasions the swept field instances the speed cubed the wind pace velocity the Swept area A and robust air density of greatest significance if we were to look at this equation is the velocity in view that we graphed this equation for small wind turbine and see the energy of the wind is exponential its cubicly regarding the wind speed so as I expand that wind speed I get entire lot extra power so one of the vital things we see typically commercials is this turbine will spin at low wind speeds at those low wind speeds there is little or no energy if there is little or no wind and if there is little or no energy we are able to convert very low power into little or no electricity and so the reality is it isn’t important that’s spins a low wind speeds instance of that is two occasions two instances two is eight and ten occasions ten occasions ten is a thousand, i do not care about those low wind speeds, due to the fact they don’t have any energy And when I should not have any vigour I can not convert them into electrical power In my turbine and so i need turbines that spin in reasonable wind speeds where there’s a lot more power each new release system is not up to 100% effective we can not capture all convert one form of vigor into a more useful form of energy with out losses and that’s genuine for wind turbines and so if i’ve the wind is blowing and say that that way and has all the energy it we with one hundred percentage if we put that by means of a turbine absolutely the great that we are able to do is percent if i will suppose those molecules moving toward a turbine placing the blades of that turbine inflicting the rotational power and then going beyond the turbine and and now there’s a slower velocity given that they’ve given up some of their energy the absolute have highest effectivity possibles percentage that used to be calculated by using Albert Betz and it has not been tested unsuitable but and that’s given that it was lovely good calculation and he essentially assumed that if they could quit as so much power as viable and be in the back of the turbine it straight hair it might be percent but the reality is that they’re now not what happens is that that turbine is that molecule of air is giving some his energy to the turbine and then the turbine because it spins is pushing that molecule inflicting it to spend some and that’s wasted energy that inflicting it to spin or the wake rotation with experiments scientists located that the faster on the blades spin the much less wake rotation losses arise and so on when I say the rapid i’m precise speaking concerning the tip that blade the turbo that tip of that blade the less wake rotation and therefore more efficient, So let’s make this more simple the rapid the tip extra effective turbine and that’s going to keep authentic very well by means of i am quite a bit experiments which have been executed in wind and indicates that the designs that have gained out and are essentially the most popular that is real start a appear at our three exclusive forms of turbines now once more these are simply three pix mills are of all unique shapes and sizes but they more commonly fit the three classes in that is savonious turbine i have close to a a hundred% drag computing device in that drag desktop i’ve gradual tip speeds because drag manner the particle is striking rather that turbine can only spin as fast as the wind blows the opposite two designs considering their airfoil and the fact that they have got carry and drag they’ve a lot turbo tip speeds and hence they have so much bigger competencies to have greater effectivity and so already we’re seeing savonious mills are much less effective then the other two mills so they may be already handicapped with the aid of that again lets simply re appear at that savonious have slow tip pace Darrieus a moderate to rapid ship speeds and horizontal axis generators have fast speeds and once more horizontal axis could be any variety of turbine of that design small or tremendous here’s a a snapshot of a enormous one i know what you’re think you’re occupied with what about that ancient Chicago variety wind mill that we had back farm these have moderate to slow tip speeds as a result of excessive solidity and excessive drag that you may think that turbine being slightly like a cross between a savonious and horizontal axis where on the grounds that I was once lifting water and wish quite a few torque forces they constructed it to have excessive solidity and as a consequence have high drag and so it really works they work very easily in lifting water up but when we were to you i try to have that identical turbine generate electrical energy its reasonable to slow tip velocity would just exhibit that ordinarily has much less effectivity then the other turbans if i’m to graph all these these things collectively the red on this case is power of the wind that’s absolute maximal what’s on hand to me within the wind that is at 100 percentage The Betz restrict 59 percent thats the high-quality I would ever do to capture its percent and sooner or later I acquired the power curve a little bit 1k turbine that indicates actually what it could actually achieve this thats what’s truth every mills gonna have rather of a fact there power curves are gong to be just a little exclusive this one has this drop of about 34 miles an hour and what that’s is that sits safeguard measure in opposition to excessive wind speeds as a different phrases energy curves are going to seem exceptional depending on how they deal with that overspeed defense this when it drops it does not drop of to zero but it surely does drop off if the wind was to you develop in a linear trend so if we’re going to appear at this normal equation once more to get a bit more detail on this case if I seem at roe it is nearly equal one it is at low land web sites and about at upland sites and so i am simply going to ignore it its shut enough to it would not have an impact on my equation all that much A is the swept subject and i can calculate that utilising Pi r squared and nevertheless tremendous my turbine is it’s and the bigger the turbine the extra power so if I used to be to look a turbine that used to be three toes across I already realize it’s now not an extraordinarily significant turban its no longer going to generate very so much electrical energy when you consider that it’s not very enormous, turbines that massive create a number of power generators which might be small create small amount of energy and so a turbine that’s three foot across instance might run a pair light bulbs however to run a apartment I would desire a turbine that’s anywhere from 10 to 16 to 25 feet in diameter to truly run the condominium after which of direction to run a bunch houses i would like even larger and so do not feel the small mills are produce energy it doesn’t matter which a type of three designs they are, small mills don’t produce very a lot vigor Wind velocity if I put it turbine in a situation with low wind pace, low power If I put a turbine in a place with a variety of wind velocity, various energy and so any turbine that’s in an city field goes to have not very a lot power given that it is an field slow wind pace invariably urban areas have low wind speeds there is very few examples that is not real and so most cases that you could assume that section that’s considering urban areas cause with a lot of wind shear and motive a lot of slowdown that wind round so even supposing you’ve got a windy city, Chicago the Windy metropolis nonetheless within the metropolis limits Chicago particularly inside of any of the areas where there may be lots residences and other things are a lot wind shear at if I desire a turbine I need to stand up manner up principally these matters and if that is viable high-quality if it can be no longer don’t put whatever low to the bottom chiefly in city settling on a vicinity, preclude gradual wind don’t forget that vigor within the wind is cubicly concerning wind velocity prevent the slow winds avert turbulent wind and in no way put I wind mills on buildings and that goes back to ideas quantity one and two preclude sluggish winds and avoid turbulance on this case i have my trouble or my condo that it and i need to prevent areas which can be twenty times the peak to the condo quite within the downwind direction but also a bit bit me up wind direction also two times the height of the house, If i’m going to put a turbine and i have a twenty-foot condo that turbine needs to be above forty foot high and normally even a bit greater than that concerning the apartment so I want a forty foot tower possibly fifty and then I could have some 60 feet timber around the house well now i am my turbine needs to be one hundred twenty foot within the air or larger so I’ve bought all these issues so prevent gradual wind preclude turbulent winds if you wish to have your turbine to supply energy if you don’t want your turbine to provide energy go forward put it wherever you need but again that is the place excellent turbine that is gonna produce electrical power wishes to be placed in a right vicinity also the correct right designed to get you the best opportunity to create electricity here some examples listed below are two wind generators which are on a constructing here like Lincoln, NE and after three years these mills have with ease produced no energy I repeat three years operation they’ve certainly not produced any vigour and the rationale is a couple of fold let’s look at this these are unhealthy they are inefficient signal so take into account this is a Savonious design is inherently inefficient which already offers it a situation it’s in a turbulent area its low to the bottom this is an place of work building and they also’ve truly had occasions the place they have tied these generators down considering that the vibrations precipitated with the aid of the fact that they did spin motive noise in the building and so again yet another reason not to put them on constructions is that stressful vibration that is elaborate to remedy anybody that says they may be able to good might be maybe now not but it’s a it’s a threat that you face via putting it on a couple of folks had a challenge no longer just one Portland Oregon once more this is a design the place design of the turbine is reasonably extra reasonable the height of the turbines appear more cheap and but this isn’t that just right again the turbine design is okay however you have got a turbulent wind that you can truly see that these 4 mills are going through in four extraordinary instructions and that’s for the reason that the wind is so turbulent up at that website online that it relatively hampers their ability to participate in I wouldn’t have the info for these however to i am i’m satisfied that they may be now not generally doing very well by my commentary of them heres some turbines I took a photo of at a university in Thunder Bay Ontario there’s three turbines on this photo so lets simply touch on a bit bit i am so this is a turbine thats correct on high the constructing their it shrouded i do not above all like charter bus considering that shrouded mills cause for small wind mills in view that the shroud takes a lot more fabric so we may say that that all we’re gonna be equipped that trap more that wind on account that we will funnel it into my turbine or every other thing shrouds say however what what happens is while you construct it and you put all that fabric and in you turn out to be with a smaller turbine given that of all that shrouds Plus this is low very low to to the bottom so there’s very turbulent wind their slower winds low to the bottom once more we put on a constructing now get maintain that vibration used to be like this one it is a a bit higher design in the fact that it is airfoil bladed and is a horizontal axis turbine so design is fine, it’s clear up in the finally ends up high you realize i would love to see that our be one more twenty ft bigger but again is regularly gonna produce some electrical energy and and maybe do reasonably well for what it’s so that is that is higher this is a third one hiding over right here behind the turbine once more I make all this dangerous design is a Darrieus variety which is k besides for a lot of darrieus turbine are typically designed to for short hours low to the ground and considering the fact that its low to the ground you’re in turbulent wind you’re in gradual wind and it doesn’t matter that your indicators k whilst you position that turbine in a situation with gradual wind that’s one challenge with that distinct turbine is tends to put them in low wind speeds low to the ground here’s one I took a photograph of once more it is a good design and the turbine itself is an effective design but in addition it siting its it can be clear its up excessive in clear winds on a tall tower its gonna produce rather slightly of power right here certainly person who that I installed and you’ll discover I did not put it on the tallest tower however I additionally put it very very clear discipline so were on prime of the hill and there isn’t any timber around and so again we put this the small wind turbine up and we’re producing quite a lot of energy from that turbine this is beautiful excellent one again equal kinda thing it is a very old design turbine 60 to 70 12 months-historical turbine possibly but with some maintenance they’ve been in a position to keep this going and it’s a pretty good design clear finishes up high tall tower.

So lets evaluation the energy in the wind in Watts is equal to one-half of instances the density air occasions the swept area instances the speed cubed remember put these in SI units to get proper outcome we’d like excessive wind speeds that pace cubed is very very principal if it’s not a field with excellent wind speeds do not assume so much construction so open areas are fine up excessive not ever put a turbine on a building.

Huge generators once more we would power down the road we see a bit of turbine it is not a handbag so much power now what’s the purpose that turbine generally there is a use for small mills in battery charge a faraway operations have been simply trickle charging a battery that small turbine is also fine if it’s if it has access to wind right so I’m now not announcing the small generators are should not have their position but comprehend a small turbine just isn’t going to generate very so much electricity and if I’m expecting it to generate fairly a little to aid me to provide for apartment or some thing like that small mills just aren’t going to get it performed so colossal generators can produce much more power conversely small generators produce best an awfully small amount of energy if you have more questions please suppose free to visit I have a bunch of one-of-a-kind locations that you may go bioenergy.Unl.Edu is my website, I even have a youtube channel Cropwatchbioenergy and then the farm energy neighborhood of practice at extension which is about W W W dot extension .Org this presentation has been put together by way of Nebraska Extension

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